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The Almighty Buck Linux

How Linux Mastered Wall Street 339

Posted by Soulskill
from the penguins-in-charge dept.
itwbennett writes "Linux has become a dominant player in finance thanks to its ability to pass messages very quickly, said Linux kernel contributor Christoph Lameter. 'The trading shops saw that the lowest-latency solutions would only be possible with Linux,' Lameter said. 'The older Unixes couldn't move as fast as Linux did.' One key attribute was the TCP/IP stack, the configuration of which determines how fast a message can be passed between two systems. Linux also offers financial firms the ability to modify the source code to further speed performance. 'It depends on how daring the exchange is,' he said, noting that NASDAQ uses a modified version of the Gentoo Linux distribution. Lameter will discuss how Linux became widely adopted by financial exchanges at the LinuxCon conference in Vancouver this week."
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How Linux Mastered Wall Street

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  • by suso (153703) * on Monday August 15, 2011 @07:27PM (#37100908) Homepage Journal

    Oh dear god our economy is a whole lot more fragile than I ever imagined. Brings a new meaning to "emerge world".

    • by basketcase (114777) on Monday August 15, 2011 @07:47PM (#37101074) Homepage

      So, what do I add to USE or CFLAGS to be able to call myself rich using imaginary money? CFLAGS="-fmake-money"? USE="federal_reserve"?

    • by ultranova (717540)

      Oh dear god our economy is a whole lot more fragile than I ever imagined.

      What, you've not heard of microsecond trading before?

      You didn't actually think that stock exchange was somehow different from a rigged casino, right?

    • IT ALL MAKES SENSE NOW!
  • by FudRucker (866063) on Monday August 15, 2011 @07:31PM (#37100938)
    I still wont trust WallStreet with my money, which would be about like trusting an alcoholic with the beer at a party...
    • by migla (1099771) on Monday August 15, 2011 @07:50PM (#37101100)

      I still wont trust WallStreet with my money, which would be about like trusting an alcoholic with the beer at a party...

      I don't know how it is over there, but over here in Sweden everyone has money in the stock market as all pensions were moved there some years ago. We're all supposed to choose where to invest them and to care about the wellbeing of Wall Street.

      Kind of unfair advantage given to the propagandists of one economic system over another, in my opinion.

      • Re: (Score:2, Insightful)

        by Anonymous Coward

        If you liked the old government pensions, there should be an option to invest your private pension in national bonds.

      • by jawahar (541989)

        Here in India, banks are allowed to invest 5 per cent of total assets in capital markets.
        But they invest a mere 0.2 per cent in stock markets.
        http://in.rediff.com/money/2005/sep/29banks.htm [rediff.com]

    • Re: (Score:2, Insightful)

      by throbber (72924)

      So you don't have a pension / 401k.

      Or a bank savings account.

      Poor you.

      • by FudRucker (866063)
        i have a few Gs in a savings account but i could pull it out any time i wanted it, and there would more than likely be a few bucks in interest added to it...
        • Really? That's all you have? 'A few Gs' sounds like less than $10k. Hope you manage to get some more added to that.
        • i have a few Gs in a savings account but i could pull it out any time i wanted it, and there would more than likely be a few bucks in interest added to it...

          I used to be like that when I was younger. A few Gs in a savings accounts. It is fucking sad, and reckless as a few Gs can evaporate quickly in an emergency. I say this in retrospect because I've been there. Luckily I grew up. Even in these times, working in software is one of the most profitable and safe careers there is. Anyone who works in software and only has a few Gs in savings is doing something very stupid with his finances.

      • by Yvanhoe (564877)
        Or I live in a "socialist" European country.
      • by hedwards (940851)

        Savings accounts are for suckers. The Pension system in the US is an absolute disgrace though. It's not unheard of for HR reps to lose the paper work for people to apply for their 401k accounts.

    • To be fair, alcoholics are often better at finding alcohol than us normal people. I could definitely see some alcoholics I knew in college taking an "investment" of one can of keystone and parlaying it into a handle of vodka before too long.

      It's too bad they don't use those skills in other areas. My friend Paul might be able to pay down the national debt. Hmm.... Maybe if we could consolidate all of our debt with Russia...
    • by Luckyo (1726890)

      This story isn't about investing. It's about flash trading, skimming off the top of the market taking a share of trades as they are just about to happen.

      Essentially, if you do any stock investment, these are the people that take a share of every purchase and sell you make by intercepting it as it's about to happen, testing for maximum buy/minimum sell value and trading both with you and the party you would have been trading with if they didn't have low latency supercomputers intercepting trades, pocketing t

  • by decora (1710862) on Monday August 15, 2011 @07:33PM (#37100958) Journal

    lets just ignore the fact that the Great Recession was directly enabled by the PHDs who turned their eyes askance at what the Gaussian Copula Function code was being used for. Not your problem right? You just make a tool, not your responsibility how others use it.

    you had five kids to feed.

    • Ultimately it does take two to tango, it was equally the fault of greedy people taking on more mortgage than they could afford thinking that house prices were magic and would keep going up forever(never mind the laws of supply and demand)

      Of course the difference in how different the two are lies in what happened AFTER the bubble burst. The greedy joe schmoe lost all the money he put into his house, the greedy wall street bankers not only got bailed out(thus proving that rewards belong to the rich, conseq
      • by Raenex (947668)

        What I dont get is why Obama largely continued the program

        Because Obama is an establishment politician. He's going to listen to the lobbyists and the people he put in charge, which came straight from the industry. He did what any other mainstream politician would have done, regardless of party.

        • by nog_lorp (896553)
          What I don't get is why everyone is surprised that every Republocrat to get into office continues the agendas of the Republocrat party. Every president since Lincoln has been one. The senate is currently 98% Republocrat, with the 2 other members caucusing with the Republocrats. The House of Representatives is 100% Republocrat.

          Republocrats favor bigger government, more federal concentration of power, a bigger military industrial complex, and the strengthening and extension of property rights.
          • I always thought they were Demoplicans. (or was it Demorons??)

            In all fairness, the folks who succeed in becoming high level politicians got there by signing on to the establishment myths that prevailed when they were in their formative years - few of them got there by thinking for themselves. Those myths still drive their reasoning, and those myths still control most of the people in most of the think tanks and lobbying groups. So it's understandable that they continue to try the same things that their p

      • by nog_lorp (896553) on Monday August 15, 2011 @08:54PM (#37101650)

        equally the fault of

        Not how blame works. Google "blame is not a zero sum game". The influences (in part or wholly) responsible for any event are infinite, and so are the factors leading to those influences (i.e. it's not Goldman Sach's fault their parents didn't raise 'em right ;)

        And if you really think people with no financial know-how who were misled by predatory lenders (with the responsibility of providing those people sound advice) are as responsible as those who carefully architected massive fraud, you must be a troll (intentionally or not).

        • I don't know any predatory lenders, personally or even know where to look. I do know of more than a few people who were getting "rich" by flipping homes every six weeks, who are now completely busted with more debt than they can handle.

          What pisses me off is that I avoided both sides of the mess, but I'm supposed to pay for it all with more taxes.

          • by ceoyoyo (59147)

            I hear pool halls are a great place to find them. Also poker games. And Vegas.

          • by bored (40072)

            What pisses me off is that I avoided both sides of the mess, but I'm supposed to pay for it all with more taxes.

            Yah, those of us with a house we paid 20% (or more) down on, living in the "cheap" part of town because we don't believe in buying things we cannot afford are the ones getting the royal shaft over all this. Same as its been for at least last 25 years. All trickle down did, was trickle down the tax bill to the middle class, and fck us at the same time by causing our infrastructure to crumble. So, n

      • they were for house flipping and cash out refinancing.

        and Synthetic CDOs are not based on mortgages, they are based on credit default swaps.

        -reference

        All the Devils are Here, Nocera and McLean

      • by AvitarX (172628)

        As someone who was on the borrowing side I will say this (and no I wasn't greedy, divorce cut household income in half, the purchase was made with the understanding that either of us could lose a job, and still cover the bills, as long as there was unemployment, followed by basic retail at least):

        I did get helped by the bail out. BoA agreed to not pursue any deficit on a short-sale, this was not the way they acted before the bail-out.

    • by JanneM (7445)

      They don't play with their own money. If you're putting your money into the market - directly or indirectly - then you're complicit. You could simply put your money in a savings account or in a safety deposit box after all. But no, you like the better returns over time. You're like a punter who sneers at his bookie as a lower class of person.

      Put your money - including your pension benefits; they're among the largest actors in the market and known for not taking responsibility as stock owners - where your mo

      • there are people with lots of savings and lots of education and lots of experienece who became unemployed, because of these games being played by others.

        if they had 'put their money in the savings account', it wouldnt have helped them one iota when the economic system went into recession.

        • by JanneM (7445)

          What I'm saying is, you can't blame the market actors without also blaming the people who give them the money to play with. Which are most of us, one way or another.

    • by tunapez (1161697) on Monday August 15, 2011 @08:37PM (#37101498)
      The problem is that measures of uncertainty using the bell curve simply disregard the possibility of sharp jumps or discontinuities and, therefore, have no meaning or consequence. Using them is like focusing on the grass and missing out on the (gigantic) trees. In fact, while the occasional and unpredictable large deviations are rare, they cannot be dismissed as âoeoutliersâ because, cumulatively, their impact in the long term is so dramatic. [ft.com]

      The Godfather tried to warn them. Don't know if I'm pleased or saddened that he lived long enough to see his incredible tools turned into "weapons of financial destruction". [Emphasis mine]

      Luckily, he will be spared the repeat performance. Nothing's changed, they're still "printing money" every day. [emphasis theirs]
      • Thanks for the link. It is pretty spot on.
        At the risk of being off topic.
        But that said the latest crisis was not one of unexpectedly large standard deviations alone, but one of badly modeled correlations. The article is correct that the variance of a portfolio is larger than it looks, but many in the equity markets had figured that out. What happened in this recent crash was that they used scant data from mortgage markets to try and estimate correlations. For eg: Biggest possible loss for Californian mo
        • were based on credit default swaps, which are basically, gambling, and have no relationship to any actual cash flow.

          and a lot of the mortgage securities were based on fraud, and the ratings agencies purposely did not even look into them to see what kind of loans they had (let alone what kind of credit default swaps they had... )

          and the bankers payed them to rate this stuff very highly.

          there are dozens of books about this. its fraud, not a 'mathematical mistake' or 'not understanding math'. the CDO desk bank

      • by khallow (566160)

        The problem is that measures of uncertainty using the bell curve simply disregard the possibility of sharp jumps or discontinuities and, therefore, have no meaning or consequence. Using them is like focusing on the grass and missing out on the (gigantic) trees. In fact, while the occasional and unpredictable large deviations are rare, they cannot be dismissed as Ãoeoutliersà because, cumulatively, their impact in the long term is so dramatic.

        So why do you think the above statement is right? A tool isn't completely broken merely because there are circumstances in which it isn't useful. It's worth noting here that the recent financial crash didn't happen because of discontinuities or the use of the Bell curve. It happened because of 50 to 1 leverage and well, the unrealistic appraisal of the risk of investing (or for that matter, doing anything at all) at such leverage.

        I find this thread interesting due to the misconceptions that get exposed.

    • Highly recommended, these two books (get them as audiobooks if you want hours of driving amusement, education and horror). Just for perspective (one that is not in these books, or anywhere else that I know of - I thunk it up with my own little brain), this whole scenario can be seen as a classic tech bubble - the technology being the application of algorithms and various other forms of computer technology to technical stock trading. This bubble began back in the early 1970s, and happened to hit critical m

    • Misusing statistics certainly enabled this crisis. And you can certainly point at these failures to explain why the whole house of cards collapsed when it did. But I wouldn't say this was the cause.

      The pile of debt in our economy has been growing exponentially since the mid 60's. It was inevitable that we would eventually reach saturation and our debt growth would stop and then reverse.

      You can point to CDS's and other invented financial instruments for delaying the inevitable crash and making the problem

    • by khallow (566160)

      lets just ignore the fact that the Great Recession was directly enabled by the PHDs who turned their eyes askance at what the Gaussian Copula Function code was being used for. Not your problem right? You just make a tool, not your responsibility how others use it.

      Let's also just ignore the fact that the PHDs were worth every penny they were paid while your bullshit morality isn't worth the time of day.

      • before it started. lets take hedge fund manager Bill Ackman for example.

        he was telling anyone who would listen that the Monoline insurance companies were based on fraud. they were insuring stuff they were never supposed to have insured, risky stuff, and then lying to investors about it.

        what happened to him? He got investigated by the SEC. he could have gone to jail for a long time. the monolines didnt investigated, the ratings agencies didnt get investigated, the New York State Insurance regulators didnt ge

  • Customizable Kernel (Score:5, Interesting)

    by Warlord88 (1065794) on Monday August 15, 2011 @07:37PM (#37100996)
    As mentioned in the summary, linux allows the firms to modify the OS kernel to serve their purpose. For example, the performance of trading algorithms would considerably degrade if context switching is allowed. So you can modify the kernel so as to dedicate certain cores for the main algorithms to which the OS can pass a very limited number of signals.

    I know for a fact that at least one bank employs this in their high frequency trading group and probably all of them do.
    • Considering that $billions are being spent in order to shorten the lag for data transfer by microseconds, I'll bet the kernel has been pruned down and tweaked to the maximum extent.

      A new data pipeline has just been completed at a cost of $100s of millions, going literally as straight as possible from Chicago to New York, in order to save a few milliseconds (or microseconds - I've heard both). For perspective, each microsecond is on the order of 200 meters of fiber optic cable (Wikipedia sez the speed of li

      • Yup, the physical distances cannot be ignored anymore. If fact, they try to place the servers as physically close to the corresponding stock exchange as possible in order to avoid speed-of-light delays!
  • by RobinEggs (1453925) on Monday August 15, 2011 @07:44PM (#37101044)
    This is the very last place I like seeing Linux.

    The article is saying (obviously) that Linux is the chosen platform for high-frequency trading, i.e. algorithm-dominated trading that has everything to do with manipulating and responding to the market in nanosecond time frames for a quick buck and nothing to do with making stable, long-term investment decisions.

    I'd rather see evidence of a Linux machine in Hitler's bunker than hear about Linux helping Wall Street punks get even further from real, useful activities than they used to be.
    • by Hatta (162192)

      Linux is a powerful tool. As such it can be used for good or evil. It's not the tool's fault if it's used for evil.

    • When you buy low and sell high, that stabilizes prices. Since High Frequencies Traders are profitable, they therefore contribute to the stability of the market. And in fact, the bid-ask spread has in fact closed significantly as a result. Speculators and arbitrageurs are no different, so long as they're profitable. (And if you're not profitable, it's not long before you fall out of the market anyways, there's no need to police it.)

      • by vux984 (928602)

        I can't tell if your being sarcastic. I hope so, because otherwise what you wrote was idiotic. Not only does it not make sense, but the argument itself isn't even logical.

        Bottom line is that any profit extracted by HFT is at the expense of the real buyers and sellers of the underlying stocks.

        • Wrong X 2. While HFT and Quant analysis both generated tech bubbles in the financial markets, now that the bubble has passed they are merely tools that decrease the granularity (in quantities, prices and time-frames) of the efficient market. These technologies are turning the markets into much cleaner implementations of the essential fluid dynamics of the economic system.

          Just for a very simple example, until very recently market makers could hold the difference between bid and ask prices a minimum of 1/8

      • by I(rispee_I(reme (310391) on Monday August 15, 2011 @09:28PM (#37101896) Journal

        When you buy low and sell high, that stabilizes prices. Since High Frequencies Traders are profitable, they therefore contribute to the stability of the market.

        This is exactly the fairytale middlemen tell themselves so they can sleep at night after making ludicrous amounts of money for producing nothing of value.
        Their only goal in life is not to the the last person holding the bag or the bottom tier of the pyramid. That's why latency is so important, and that's why the "free market" is a myth- as long as your latency is higher than someone closer to the exchange, there can be no level playing field.

        I've thought about this at some length, and barring "spooky action at a distance" to negate the effects of latency, two ideas commend themselves to me:

        1) A fixed interval of latency imposed on all trades that is much larger than the maximum latency differential. This seems like it might help things, but it also seems like sweeping the problem under the rug- there would still be some advantage to lower latency in trades, after all. The "high frequency trades" would just occur as close to that fixed interval as possible.

        2) An alternate currency used to pay those whose "profitable" actions can be repeated arbitrarily in a given interval. It takes no more effort to sell a million shares short than a billion, but (for example) an ear of corn cannot be multiplied effortlessly in a given interval. It seems to me that by paying the middlemen (who do not produce anything of real value) in the same coin as the farmer (who does), the farmer's money is devalued. Let me anticipate the "the middlemen would simply exchange their currency for the farmer's currency" reply by saying that in doing so, they would empower the farmer. After all, his currency is scarce, and the middlemens' currency is not.

        I'm sure I'm an imbecile who doesn't understand the subtleties of Wall Street, but then again, evidence seems to suggest that so is everyone else.

    • by couchslug (175151) on Monday August 15, 2011 @09:37PM (#37101958)

      Freedom doesn't mean "just freedoms you approve of".

      The best quote on the subject is from the OpenBSD camp:

      "But software which OpenBSD uses and redistributes must be free to all (be they people or companies), for any purpose they wish to use it, including modification, use, peeing on, or even integration into baby mulching machines or atomic bombs to be dropped on Australia."
      Theo de Raadt
            cvs@openbsd.org mailing list, May 29, 2001

    • high-frequency trading, i.e. algorithm-dominated trading

      It really comes down to a man in the middle attack.
      The message is coming through that you want to buy shares, so some bastard in the middle buys them before you can get them and sells them to you at an inflated price.
      I'll leave whether it is a level morally above or below using keyloggers to find credit card details as an exercise for the reader.

    • by iggymanz (596061)

      Nope, IBM, was around in Hitler's time. So IBM gear and consulting is what IBM used.

       
          IBM - counting your Jews since 1933 [ibmandtheholocaust.com]

    • I'd rather see evidence of a Linux machine in Hitler's bunker than hear about Linux helping Wall Street punks get even further from real, useful activities than they used to be.

      You'd rather see technology used for mass genocide than greed? Scratch that, if we find evidence, we're actually talking about time-traveling mass genocide. This could be serious.

  • Accuracy ? (Score:4, Informative)

    by Alain Williams (2972) <addw@phcomp.co.uk> on Monday August 15, 2011 @07:56PM (#37101132) Homepage

    As late as 2007, Wall Street exchanges were still largely run on Unix, such as HP's AIX and Sun Microsystems' Solaris

    I don't think that IBM will be pleased to be told that HP produced AIX!

  • It's sad to see how much money Wall Street firms were able to generate using this open source platform. We have yet to see what the open source communities get from these welches!

  • by br00tus (528477) on Monday August 15, 2011 @08:18PM (#37101318)

    Development and administration at Fortune 100 companies in Manhattan is different than any other place I encountered, including other large companies. There is a lot of message-oriented middleware to patch together different systems.

    You'd see a lot of strange stuff - a batch job printing from an IBM mainframe would be routed to the Unix print server, and be sent off to a junky old printer in some foreign country. Not always easy to debug when there is a problem.

    Where I was, there were a ton of these old programs written in FORTRAN, COBOL and whatnot which had had business logic put in them for decades sitting on these modern IBM mainframes. Some of the business logic within it was probably lost long ago, it all just "worked", with a lot of the output routed to more modern equipment and technology. I guess they figure if anything ever goes wrong, they have almost unlimited money to throw at the problem so they don't worry about it.

    You also have things happen. A business group has their developers write some program, it goes production on a machine or two, and then for whatever reason it generates a lot of money. Suddenly you have millions, sometimes even billions of dollars going over one production machine in a day. Everything happens so fast that it was never planned out to be scalable, and the main developer is too busy tweaking the program to make it make more money than to be scalable etc. If you're lucky, its market is closed during the week and you get to work on adding in additional levels of redundancy to the machine which suddenly has billions flowing through it every day. Despite the lack of planning, you better bet people will be flipping out if the machine goes down during the day, and the traders hear that their trades aren't going through due to "computer problems".

    At the Fortune 100 financial I was at, Windows was considered a joke. Even the local head of the Windows team admitted that the Unix side was where things were really happening. It was just more flexible, focused on high availability and so on. With Linux coming in so much on the Unix side, that flexibility has only increased. I'm sure whatever RHEL or SUSE edition being run on most servers is so heavily modified internally by the various companies internal engineering teams, that it doesn't look like a RHEL or SUSE anyone here has ever seen. And RHEL and SUSE bend over backwards to get the business - which can be on tens of thousands, even hundreds of thousands of machines around the world.

  • They're still the master. Linux is their eager little pet, far more willing to learn new tricks than their old pet Solaris.

  • by inhuman_4 (1294516) on Monday August 15, 2011 @08:54PM (#37101656)
    This high frequency trading is stupid. Everyone knows that it is a scam that is just making the markets more unstable. Yet no one does anything about it. IMHO the markets should have a clock speed like a CPU. All of the trades enter a queue and the queue gets executed once a second. This would limit each trading day to X number of ticks per day. This would go a long way to removing high frequency crap from the system. Of course people will then try to improve short term predictions rather than long term like they should. But it would be a step in the right direction.
    • by gman003 (1693318)

      Better idea - add a low fixed tax on any stock trade, regardless of value or size. Just a $0.01 per transaction would make HFT extremely costly- if you're executing millions of trades per second, that quickly brings you up to billions of dollars per trading day. HFT can't be that profitable. Yet it wouldn't really affect people making actual investments - ones where you actually investigate the company to make sure it knows how to earn a profit.

      • by pyite (140350)

        Better idea - add a low fixed tax on any stock trade, regardless of value or size. Just a $0.01 per transaction would make HFT extremely costly- if you're executing millions of trades per second, that quickly brings you up to billions of dollars per trading day. HFT can't be that profitable. Yet it wouldn't really affect people making actual investments - ones where you actually investigate the company to make sure it knows how to earn a profit.

        Yea, what a horrible idea. You'll realize how bad an idea that

        • by gman003 (1693318)

          One cent is effectively nothing on most stock transactions. Remember, that's regardless of shares transferred or their total value - selling 10,000 shares of Google's $500 stock (total value: $5M) would still get only a one-cent tax. Even small stuff, it's not a barrier - I could sell my ten shares of the now-bankrupt Circuit City for $0.04 (current price), and have made a one-cent profit after that tax (I bought it at $0.0021)

          Hell, lower it to a tenth of a cent if you still think it's a problem. For millio

    • Sigh. An economic system is an implementation of fluid dynamics, or if you prefer complex adaptive systems (which amount to much the same thing in the limit.) What you are suggesting is tantamount to saying the ocean should be made of ice cubes, in order to avoid waves getting too big. Now that the tech bubbles around quants and HFT have been popped, and (important!) there are equally talented traders and programmers on both/all sides of the system, these are valuable tools for making the market more tru

  • well that seems retarded if you are so interested in speed. And I would think any of the *bsd's would perform just as well as linux and might be more secure too.

    • It makes sense if you are using Java for the GUI. Presumably they aren't using Java in their custom-kernel-hacking.
    • by iggymanz (596061)

      BSD doesn't shine on the high-end SMP machines. FreeBSD's website even has a warning about SMP and high loads, that it might seize up.

      Now I prefer BSD on my servers, but they're not 8-way or more.

  • What occurs to me is that 15-20 years ago, when Sun iron dominated Wall Street, is that all the Sparcstations came IIRC with 10baseT on the motherboard, and I don't recall there being faster NICs available. And even if there were, in a lot of cases all the machines slots were populated with graphics cards.

    Then three things all sort of happened around the same time: Linux (kernel and user land) reached a level of maturity and stability, inexpensive 100baseT and later 1000baseT NICs became available, and Inte

  • by proud american (1003577) on Monday August 15, 2011 @10:07PM (#37102178)
    I work at a major wall street bank. We used to be heavily Sparc/Solaris/C++. Over time the Intel platforms became much faster and much cheaper than the Sparc ones. There was some early concerns about reliability but it was not warranted. The boxes are so fast now we are almost exclusively using virtual linux boxes too.

    We are doing a lot of Java these days. The JVM's are much improved. It is very easy to write large heavily multithreaded Java apps to replace the our large C++ distributed systems. The Java development, build, debug, and deployment tools are great.

    One can spend time arguing the merits of C++ vs Java. The reality is in most cases the C++ development time is slower, and the coding patterns used do not produce code that is faster than Java. C++ development and deployment across different platforms is a pain.
  • Hey look, we made it possible for the already wealthy to have an unfair advantage over those without the money for supercomputers and millisecond trading!
  • Not surprising to see GNU/Linux popping up in finance world. Not just trading, but banking, insurance, government finance. IBM: You can have IFL processors on your mainframe (Integrated Facility for Linux) with or without z/VM, and there is Linux on zSeries. You can run Linux on your System x or System p.

    Oracle/Sun: solaris or linux on your Oracle x86 box. Unbreakable Linux for Oracle.

    HP: Redhat and SuSE were supported on Integrity servers (not to be supported on the new 9300, but that's an
  • Linux also offers financial firms the ability to modify the source code to further speed performance.

    So does anyone have a link to any source code that was made open under the license? They may be taking our money, but at least they are giving us code, right?

    • by Arlet (29997)

      The GPL only requires you that you distribute the source code to those that have received the binary. So, if you modify GPL code for personal use, and do not distribute the binary, you're not required to distribute the source code.

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